Meat is an important source of protein and essential nutrients that our body needs. However, sometimes meats can be tough and hard to chew, which makes them unappetizing. Tenderizing meat is an effective way to combat this issue, making them softer and easier to eat. There are several methods that exist to tenderize the meat, ranging from mechanical to chemical to cooking techniques.
The first method to tenderize meat is by mechanical means. This involves breaking down the tough muscle fibers that run through the meat. This process can be done in various ways, such as pounding the meat with a meat mallet or a rolling pin. For example, beef steaks can be pounded with a meat mallet to break down the fibers and create a tender texture.
Similarly, meat can also be subjected to a tenderizing machine, which runs it through a series of sharp blades or needles that pierce the meat, disrupting the fibers.
The second method to tenderize the meat is through chemical treatment. This process involves the application of natural or artificial substances that can chemically break down protein fibers in the meat. Proteolytic enzymes are one such example; they break down collagen and elastin, the connective tissues in the meat, and make it more tender.
Common sources of proteolytic enzymes include fruits (such as pineapple and papaya), meat tenderizers, and even baking soda.
The third method of tenderizing meat is through cooking techniques. This method involves the application of heat to break down the tough muscle fibers in meat. Slow cooking methods, such as simmering or braising, break down connective tissues and soften the meat to create a more tender texture. Pressure cooking can also create tender meats, as the pressure causes the heat to penetrate the meat at a deeper level and break down the fibers.
Additionally, marinating meat in acidic ingredients like vinegar or citrus juice can help in pre-cooking tenderization and infusion of flavors.
There are several ways to tenderize meat, including mechanical, chemical, and cooking techniques. Pounding the meat with a mallet or machine, using proteolytic enzymes or acid from marinating, and cooking the meat slowly or under pressure are often used to create the soft and tender texture that is more appetizing and delicious.
With these methods, any tough cut of meat can be transformed into a delicious and tender meat dish that is enjoyable for all.
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How do you make meat soft and tender?
There are several techniques that can be used to make meat soft and tender.
1. Marination: Marinating meat involves soaking it in a blend of acidic ingredients like vinegar, lemon juice or wine, as well as seasonings like herbs and spices. The acidity in the ingredients helps to break down the proteins in meat, thus making it more tender.
2. Brining: Brining is a process that involves soaking meat in a solution of salt and water. This helps to draw out the moisture from the meat, which is then replaced with the solution, making the meat more flavorful, juicy and tender.
3. Slow cooking: Slow cooking is a method that involves cooking meat at low temperatures for long periods, usually several hours. This allows the collagen in the meat to break down, thus making it more tender.
4. Using a meat tenderizer: A meat tenderizer is a tool that can be used to physically break down the fibers in meat. It can be a mallet, a rolling pin or a specialized tool with spikes that puncture the meat.
5. Sous vide cooking: Sous vide is a method of cooking in which meat is sealed in a vacuum bag and cooked in a water bath at a precise temperature. This method ensures that the meat is cooked evenly and results in a tender, flavorful dish.
6. Choosing the right cut: Different cuts of meat have different levels of tenderness. For instance, cuts from the loin or rib areas, such as sirloin or ribeye, tend to be more tender than those from the tougher, more active muscles like the flank or chuck. Choosing the right cut can go a long way in ensuring that the meat is tender and easy to eat.
Making meat soft and tender requires patience, technique and the right ingredients. By utilizing one or a combination of these techniques, you can achieve tender and delicious meat that will be a hit with your family and guests.
What are the ways to make tough meat tender?
Cooking tough meat is a common problem that many cooks face when preparing their favorite dishes. Tough meat can be a result of the meat being from an older animal, overcooking or undercooking, or a cut of meat that is naturally tougher than others. However, there are several ways to make tough meat tender, and this includes the following:
1. Marinating the meat
One way to make tough meat tender is by marinating it. By marinating, you can infuse the meat with flavors and enzymes that will help to break down the toughness of the meat. There are several ingredients you can use to marinate meat, such as vinegar, citrus juices, and wine. Yogurt is also a great marinade since it contains natural enzymes that can help to tenderize the meat.
The meat should be refrigerated overnight to allow the marinade to penetrate it thoroughly.
2. Pressure cooking
Another way to make tough meat tender is to use a pressure cooker. A pressure cooker can help to tenderize the meat quickly by applying high heat and high pressure. The high pressure of the cooker breaks down the connective tissues in the meat, making it more tender. When using a pressure cooker, you should add enough liquid to cover the meat, which will help to create steam and increase the pressure.
Slow cooking is another effective method for making tough meat tender. When you slow cook meat, you’re essentially cooking it gently over an extended period, which helps to break down the collagen and connective tissues that make it tough. Slow cooking is ideal for tougher cuts of meat like beef brisket or pork shoulder, which can take several hours to cook.
To make sure that the meat remains tender, it’s best to avoid overcooking it.
4. Using a meat tenderizer
Using a meat tenderizer is another easy way to make tough meat more tender. A meat tenderizer is a kitchen tool that features a series of small blades or needles that puncture the meat, breaking down the tough fibers. It’s essential to use a meat tenderizer carefully to avoid over-tenderizing the meat, which can result in a mushy texture.
Brining is a process that involves soaking the meat in a saltwater solution for several hours or overnight. The saltwater solution helps to break down the tough fibers in the meat, making it more tender. Brining also infuses the meat with flavor, making it ideal for dishes like turkey, chicken, and pork chops.
There are several ways to make tough meat tender, and these include marinating, pressure cooking, slow-cooking, using a meat tenderizer, and brining. By using these methods, you can transform even the toughest cuts of meat into a delicious meal that your family will enjoy.
How to make steak tender like Chinese?
Steak is a popular dish all over the world, and it’s no secret that in China, steak is often prepared in a way that makes it incredibly tender and flavorful. If you’re looking to achieve the same level of tenderness and flavor in your own home cooking, there are a few tips and tricks that you can follow.
Firstly, it’s important to choose the right cut of steak. In Chinese cooking, the most commonly used cuts are flank steak, hanger steak, and skirt steak. These cuts tend to be tougher and benefit from slow cooking methods or quick cooking methods with high heat, such as stir-frying.
Secondly, marinating the steak is key to tenderizing it. Chinese marinades typically include soy sauce, rice wine or sherry, sugar, and cornstarch. The cornstarch helps to tenderize the meat by breaking down the proteins, while the sugar and soy sauce add flavor and create a caramelized exterior when cooked.
Another technique used in Chinese cooking is to “velvet” the meat. This involves lightly coating the meat in a mixture of egg whites, cornstarch, and a small amount of oil. The mixture is then blanched in boiling water for a few seconds before being removed and quickly shocked in cold water. This technique helps to keep the meat moist and tender, giving it a velvety texture.
Finally, cooking the steak correctly is crucial. For quick-cooking methods like stir-frying, it’s important to have your pan or wok preheated so that the steak cooks quickly and doesn’t become tough. For slow-cooking methods like braising or simmering, it’s important to keep the heat low and the liquid level high to ensure that the meat stays moist and tender.
By following these tips and techniques, you can create a tender and flavorful steak that rivals any Chinese restaurant dish. Engage the senses while cooking and visualize the outcome, then feel free to experiment with different flavors and cuts of meat to find your own perfect combination.
What is the Chinese method of velveting meat?
The Chinese method of velveting meat is a unique cooking technique that originated in China and is widely used in Chinese cuisine. This method helps to tenderize and preserve the juiciness and texture of the meat, ensuring that it is succulent and flavorful.
To velvet meat, the first step is to marinate it in a mixture of cornstarch, wine, salt, and sometimes egg white, for at least thirty minutes. The cornstarch serves as a coating that adheres to the meat, sealing in the moisture and giving a velvety texture. The wine tenderizes the meat, while the salt enhances the flavor.
The egg white is optional, but it creates a soothing texture and locks in the juices.
After the marination process, the meat is either briefly blanched or deep-fried in hot oil to cook it partially. Blanching involves soaking the meat in boiling water for a few seconds, then immediately removing it and cooling it down in cold water. Deep-frying is done in hot oil for a few seconds until the meat is slightly browned on the outside.
These processes help to lock in the moisture and prevent the meat from becoming dry.
The final step involves stir-frying the meat with other ingredients, including vegetables or sauces, to create a delicious meal. The velveting method ensures that the meat remains tender and juicy even after cooking, making it perfect for stir-fries or dishes that require long, slow cooking.
The Chinese method of velveting meat is a skilled technique that results in tender and flavorful meat that is the hallmark of Asian cuisine. By marinating the meat in a cornstarch and wine mixture, partially cooking it through blanching or deep-frying, and stir-frying it with other ingredients, this technique ensures that the meat retains its juiciness, texture, and flavor.
How do Chinese tenderize flank steak?
In Chinese cuisine, flank steak is typically used in stir-fries, stews, and soups. To make the flank steak tender, Chinese cooks use different techniques depending on the dish and the cut of meat. One of the most common methods is to marinate the meat in a mixture of soy sauce, rice wine, ginger, garlic, and sometimes a pinch of sugar.
This combination of ingredients helps to break down the tough fibers of the meat and infuse it with flavor.
Another technique is to thinly slice the flank steak against the grain before cooking. By cutting across the grain, the fibers of the meat are shortened, which makes it easier to chew and less tough. Chinese cooks also use a technique called velveting, which involves coating the meat with a mixture of egg whites, cornstarch, and a small amount of oil.
The meat is then briefly blanched in hot water or oil, which results in a tender, juicy texture.
In addition to these methods, Chinese cooks may also use a meat mallet or a cleaver to pound the flank steak to help break down the muscle fibers. Lastly, cooking the meat over high heat for a short amount of time can help to tenderize it, as well as adding a bit of cornstarch to the stir-fry sauce to thicken it and give the meat a velvety texture.
Chinese cuisine offers a variety of techniques to make flank steak tender and flavorful, making it a favorite ingredient in many Chinese recipes.
What makes meat super tender?
Meat that is super tender is achieved when the protein fibers within the meat structure break down, allowing for easier chewing and digestion. To accomplish this, there are several methods that can be utilized, the most common of which involves the breaking down of collagen, a tough connective tissue that holds the meat’s muscle fibers together.
One method for achieving tender meat involves marination. This involves immersing the meat in an acidic liquid for a certain period of time. The acidity in the marinade helps to naturally break down the collagen, making the meat more tender. Additionally, adding certain ingredients to the marinade, like papain, bromelain, or tenderizers like salt can help to speed up the process.
Another popular method for tenderizing meat involves slow cooking. This method involves cooking the meat at a low temperature for an extended period of time. This helps to break down the collagen and allows the meat to become tender over time. Examples of this method include slow-cooking in a crockpot or braising.
An alternative method is the use of enzymes. There are a variety of enzymes, including papain and bromelain, that are effective at breaking down the collagen in meat. These enzymes are often found in fruits like papaya and pineapples; thus, cooking with these ingredients can help to naturally tenderize the meat.
Furthermore, meat that is well rested prior to cooking can also contribute to tenderness. Resting meat allows the natural juices to redistribute throughout the cut of meat, making it more juicy and tender when cooked.
Lastly, selecting the right cut of meat can also make a significant impact on tenderness. Certain cuts, like sirloin and flank, are naturally tougher than others, like tenderloin. Therefore, selecting a cut with less connective tissue can make achieving tender meat easier.
Achieving super tender meat involves leveraging the meat’s natural properties, including rest, enzymes, and slow cooking. Additionally, using ingredients like acidic marinades, papain, and bromelain can help to accelerate the process, making your meat meals more enjoyable and satisfying.
What softens tough meat?
There are several methods that can be used to soften tough meat. One of the most popular methods is to use acidic ingredients, which can break down the tough fibers in the meat and make it more tender.
One common acidic ingredient used for tenderizing meat is vinegar. The acid in the vinegar helps to break down the tough muscle fibers in the meat, making it softer and more tender. Similarly, lemon juice or lime juice can also be used to tenderize meat.
Another way to soften tough meat is to use enzymes. Enzymes are natural proteins that can break down the protein fibers in meat and make it more tender. One commonly used enzyme for tenderizing meat is papain, which is found in papaya fruit. Papain can also be found in commercial tenderizers that are sold in stores.
Marinating meat is also a great way to soften tough cuts. Marinating involves soaking the meat in a flavorful liquid for an extended period of time, which can help to break down the muscle fibers and soften the meat. Adding ingredients like soy sauce, Worcestershire sauce, and even beer or wine to your marinade can help to tenderize tough cuts of meat.
Finally, cooking methods can also be used to soften tough meat. Slow cooking methods such as braising, stewing, or roasting can break down the connective tissues in the meat and make it more tender. The key is to be patient and cook the meat slowly over a low heat to allow the tough fibers to break down.
There are several tried and true methods for softening tough meat including using acidic ingredients, enzymes, marinating, and slow cooking methods. By using one or a combination of these techniques, even the toughest cuts of meat can be turned into a delicious and tender meal.
What does baking soda do to meat?
Baking soda is a commonly used ingredient in cooking that can have a number of effects on meat when used in specific ways. One of the primary ways in which baking soda affects meat is by increasing the pH level of the meat, which can lead to a number of changes in texture and taste.
When meat is exposed to baking soda, the alkaline properties of the soda cause the meat to become more tender and moist. This is due to the way in which the alkaline conditions can help to break down certain proteins in the meat, making it easier to chew and swallow. In addition, the increased moisture content of the meat can help to prevent it from becoming dry or tough during cooking, which can result in a more pleasant texture and flavor.
However, it is important to note that using baking soda too liberally or in the wrong way can also have negative effects on meat. For example, if too much baking soda is used or the meat is exposed to it for too long, it can begin to break down too much and become mushy, losing its desirable texture and flavor.
Additionally, baking soda can also affect the color of meat, causing it to turn brown or gray if used in large quantities.
While baking soda can be a useful ingredient for improving the tenderness and moisture of meat, it should be used with care and in moderation to avoid negative effects on flavor and texture. Properly used, however, it can be a useful tool in creating delicious, tender meat dishes.
How do you make a steak super tender and juicy?
Making a steak super tender and juicy is an art form, and there are many factors that can affect the quality of your meat. However, by following a few key steps, you can increase your chances of producing a steak that melts in your mouth.
One of the most important factors to consider when cooking steak is the cut of meat itself. Certain cuts, such as ribeye or tenderloin, are naturally more tender than others and require less prep work. On the other hand, tougher cuts, such as flank or skirt steak, can be made tender with a bit of marinating or slow cooking.
Another key factor to consider is the cooking method. While grilling is a popular method for cooking steak, it can dry out the meat if not done properly. Instead, consider using a cast-iron skillet or oven broiler, as these methods will ensure that the heat is evenly distributed throughout the meat.
A third factor to consider is seasoning. While salt and pepper are essential for flavoring your steak, try adding herbs or spices like rosemary, thyme, or garlic to give it that extra flavor boost. Additionally, consider marinating your steak in a mixture of oil, acid, and spices before cooking to tenderize the meat and add even more flavor.
Finally, it’s important to let your steak rest before cutting into it. This allows the juices to redistribute throughout the meat, resulting in a juicy and tender steak. Aim to let your steak rest for at least five to ten minutes before slicing into it.
There are many factors to consider when preparing a steak that is both tender and juicy. By selecting the right cut of meat, using the proper cooking method, seasoning your steak adequately, and allowing it to rest before serving, you can produce a steak that is sure to satisfy even the pickiest of eaters.
How do you do the tender meat trick?
The tender meat trick can be achieved through a few different methods, depending on the type of meat you are working with and your preferred cooking method. However, the most important thing to keep in mind is that the key to tender meat is always going to be in the preparation, marinating, and cooking techniques rather than any specific trick.
One of the best ways to make meat tender is to use a marinade or dry rub that includes acidic ingredients like vinegar, citrus juice, or yogurt. These acids help to break down the tough fibers in the meat, making it more tender and juicy. Depending on the type of meat you are working with, you may also want to add some fat or oil to the marinade to help keep it moist during cooking.
Another trick to tender meat is to use a slow cooking method. This works particularly well for tougher cuts of meat like beef brisket or pork shoulder, which have a lot of connective tissue that needs to be broken down over time. Slow cooking methods like braising or slow roasting allow the meat to cook low and slow, which helps to break down the tough fibers and turn them into gelatin, resulting in a tender and flavorful finished product.
In addition to using acidic marinades and slow cooking methods, there are also some other tips and tricks you can use to make meat tender. For example, you may want to consider using a meat tenderizer tool to help break down the fibers in the meat before cooking. This can be especially helpful for thinner cuts of meat like chicken breasts or pork chops.
Another trick to tender meat is to let it rest for a few minutes after cooking. This allows the juices to redistribute throughout the meat, making it more tender and flavorful. Additionally, be sure to slice your meat against the grain, which will also help to break down the tough fibers and result in a more tender finished product.
There are a variety of techniques and tricks you can use to make your meat tender and delicious. Experiment with different marinades, cooking methods, and resting times to find what works best for you and your favorite cuts of meat. With a little practice and experimentation, you’ll be able to consistently create tender, juicy, and flavorful meat that will impress your family and friends.
To better understand this, let's look at the three main methods of tenderizing meat: mechanical, thermal, and enzymatic.What are 3 things you can do to tenderize a cut of meat that is from a less tender part of an animal? ›
- Pound it out. Pounding softens and tenderizes meat, making it easier to cut and eat. ...
- Harness the power of salt. ...
- Use an acidic marinade. ...
- Consider the kiwi. ...
- Give it some knife work. ...
- Slow cook it.
Velveting is a simple process of using baking soda or a mixture of egg whites, cornstarch and oil to marinate and tenderize economical cuts of steak, chicken and other meats before cooking. Velveting meat softens fibers to reduce toughness and enhance juiciness for maximum flavor and tenderness.What are the factors of tenderize meat? ›
Meat tenderness depends on three main factors: (1) the degree of contraction of muscle sarcomeres, (2) the integrity/degradation of the myofibrillar structure and (3) the connective tissue content (“background toughness”) (Koohmaraie et al., 2002; Sentandreu et al., 2002).
How to Make It. Just add 1 to 2 tablespoons of white vinegar to your cooking liquids and your roasts, stew meats, and steaks will come out tender and juicy every time. Another option is to pierce your meat all over with a fork and then soak it in vinegar for 1 to 2 hours before you cook it.What are two methods of preparing the more tender parts of meat? ›
These muscles lie along the backbone and may be called the supporting muscles. The general methods of cooking tender cuts of meat by dry heat are (1) roasting, (2) broiling, (3) panbroiling, and (4) pan frying and deep-fat frying.How do Chinese make their meat so tender? ›
In Chinese cooking, proteins like beef, pork or chicken are velveted first before stir-frying them. There are several ways to velvet, but at its most basic level, it involves marinating meat with at least one ingredient that will make it alkaline. This is what tenderizes the meat, especially cheaper, tougher cuts.What is the best temperature to tenderize meat? ›
At 120°F (48.9°C) meat slowly begins to tenderize as the protein myosin begins to coagulate and the connective tissue in the meat begins to break down.Why does baking soda tenderize meat? ›
As Cook's Illustrated explains, baking soda alkalizes the meat's surface, making it harder for the proteins to bond and thereby keeping the meat tenderer when cooked.Does Worcestershire sauce tenderize meat? ›
Does Worcestershire Tenderize Meat? Yes, Worcestershire sauce is a great meat tenderizer. It has vinegar in it, which breaks down the meat fibers. It's highly concentrated, so it penetrates deep into the steak for more flavor.
Any acidic liquid will help tenderize meat and also infuse flavor. This includes wine, vinegar, and acidic fruit juice like pineapple, lemon, lime, and orange. You can also add other flavors like minced garlic, rosemary, basil, or sliced onions.What method is only used with very tender meat? ›
When meat is cooked immersed in fat, the process is called deep-fat frying. This method is only used with very tender meat. Usually, meat to be deep-fat fried is coated with egg and crumbs or a batter, or it is dredged in flour or corn meal (breaded).What are the 3 types of cooking methods? ›
- Dry-heat methods, with or without fat. Dry-heat cooking methods like stir-frying, pan-frying, deep-frying, and sautéing rely on fats and oil to act as the cooking medium. ...
- Moist-heat methods. ...
- Methods using a combination of dry and moist heat.
- 1) Tea. Tea contains tannins, which are a natural tenderiser. ...
- 2) Coffee. ...
- 3) Cola. ...
- 4) Pineapple, pawpaw, figs, kiwis. ...
- 5) Ginger. ...
- 6) Baking Soda. ...
- 7) Vinegar. ...
- 8) Beer or wine.
- A rolling pin. Makes sense. ...
- An empty wine bottle. ... ...
- A really heavy novel. ...
- A large Pyrex or other shatter-proof measuring cup. ...
- A cast iron skillet or other heavy saucepan. ...
- An actual hammer. ...
- Canned food.
Place the beef in a saucepan and add just enough beef broth or water to cover it. Add some onions, garlic, and other herbs and spices if desired. Bring the mixture to a simmer over medium-low heat and cook, covered, for 2-3 hours, or until the beef is very tender.How do restaurants make steak so tender? ›
Most fine restaurants age their beef to intensify the flavor and improve the tenderness of the cut. Aging is done by letting the meat sit (in very controlled conditions) for several days or weeks.Does Coca Cola tenderize steak? ›
Cola's high acidity and caramel flavor makes a surprisingly good meat tenderizer. Cola typically has a pH of about 2.7—for comparison, lemon juice has a pH of 2—making it acidic enough to break down some proteins without dissolving your meat.How do you make hard meat soft and tender? ›
- Physically tenderize the meat. ...
- Use a marinade. ...
- Don't forget the salt. ...
- Let it come up to room temperature. ...
- Cook it low-and-slow. ...
- Hit the right internal temperature. ...
- Rest your meat. ...
- Slice against the grain.
Sake adds a subtle umami flavor and helps tenderize meat. The flavors in the marinade go with any type of meat, including beef, chicken, pork, and seafood. The flavors in this marinade will give your meat a Japanese steakhouse-inspired flavor.
There are two popular velveting techniques in Chinese cooking: the baking soda method and the cornstarch method. Before making your favorite Chinese stir-fry, learn how to velvet thinly sliced beef with baking soda to ensure tender, juicy meat.What is the best homemade meat tenderizer? ›
- 1) Tea. Tea contains tannins, which are a natural tenderiser. ...
- 2) Coffee. ...
- 3) Cola. ...
- 4) Pineapple, pawpaw, figs, kiwis. ...
- 5) Ginger. ...
- 6) Baking Soda. ...
- 7) Vinegar. ...
- 8) Beer or wine.
Most fine restaurants age their beef to intensify the flavor and improve the tenderness of the cut. Aging is done by letting the meat sit (in very controlled conditions) for several days or weeks.How does baking soda tenderize meat? ›
As Cook's Illustrated explains, baking soda alkalizes the meat's surface, making it harder for the proteins to bond and thereby keeping the meat tenderer when cooked.What can I soak beef in to make it tender? ›
Acids can help break down tough meat. Soaking meat in a marinade made with lemon or lime juice, vinegar, buttermilk or even yogurt can help tenderize tough proteins.Does apple cider vinegar tenderize meat? ›
Marinating your meats in apple cider vinegar can work to tenderize them, as long as you don't add too much vinegar and don't marinate them too long (it's very acidic, so prolonged exposure can break down the fibers in the meat and turn it to mush).What is the best seasoning for tenderizing meat? ›
When it comes to cooking tender steak, the seasoning matters! Salt tenderizes beef by drawing moisture out of it, then dissolving so it acts as a brine. We prefer sea salt over table salt for tenderizing, as it has the perfect texture and flavor for steak.How does Texas Roadhouse tenderize? ›
What does Texas Roadhouse do to make their steaks so tender? The key to making the steak tender is to let it rest after seasoning the steak. This lets the seasoning penetrate into the steak which helps to break down the muscle fibers. Let is rest for at least 30 minutes.How does Texas Roadhouse make their chicken so tender? ›
What sets Texas Roadhouse Chicken Critters apart is that they use an airy batter that's kept light with club soda. Soaking in buttermilk tenderizes the chicken and makes it so much more flavorful.Why do chefs put butter on steak? ›
Adding butter to steak adds extra richness and can also soften the charred exterior, making a steak more tender.
Allow the meat to soak in the baking soda solution for 15 minutes. Remove the meat from the liquid and briefly rinse the meat in plain water to strip off the baking soda solution (or as much of it as possible). Cook as desired.Does baking powder tenderize meat better than baking soda? ›
ANSWER: I found several sources that recommend using baking soda as a tenderizer for tougher cuts of beef, but not baking powder. You can also use baking soda to tenderize chicken and pork. But baking powder has an effect on poultry skin (more on this later).How do you get the taste of baking soda out of meat? ›
Mix in something acidic
Baking soda is basically sodium bicarbonate, which is alkaline in nature. It is important to balance its overtly bitter taste lest it overpowers your dish. Use a small amount of an acidic condiment such as lemon juice or vinegar to neutralise the soda.